Sunday, May 17, 2020
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder can be distressing and can cause dysfunction in peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s everyday lives. People all around the world suffer from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder no matter their gender, race, or culture. Children, teens, and adults could potentially gain OCD depending on the stressful situations that occur in their lives. People who suffer from this disorder often have uncontrollable thoughts of worry and anxiety that lead to actions and behaviors that become repetitive habits. The actions normally occur when people think that the worst possible things might happen to them. So in order to attempt to suppress the fearful thoughts people may perform different habits over and over again throughout each day in order to gain aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This treatment consists of a therapist attempting to expose someone with this disorder to the thing that they fear without allowing them to perform their compulsive habits that go along with their anxiety. This t reatment is normally considered uncomfortable to the patients and may take time to become affective but can teach people who suffer from Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder that they can still survive even if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel completely secure when facing their fears. An example would be making a patient who is insecure about trusting people leave their car unlocked in a busy parking lot. This would help them to realize that it is okay if they donÃ¢â¬â¢t push the lock button twenty times or pull on the door over and over trying to reassure themselves that their belongings are safe. The patients who go through this are supposed to slowly learn to deal with their fears and anxieties without letting it affect their everyday livesÃ¢â¬â¢. The Exposure and Response Prevention therapy treatments are not always safe but can be highly effective in the long run. Exposing a person who is terrified of becoming sick to an unsanitary environment may cause them to actually become sick but it is to help them learn to face fears without relying on their compulsive reactions to help them feel protected. It is difficult to identify symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder because sometimes people donÃ¢â¬â¢t even realize that they are
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Like two spoiled children throwing a fit, the Union and Confederacy found themselves in a situation they were unprepared for. Neither side had an army large enough to conduct a full-scale war. Each side had trepidations about engaging in armed conflict, but like the years leading up to secession the most extreme political voices triumphed over moderation. Dr. McClintock argues that hard-liners in the north refused to negotiate for peace feeling they had nothing wrong. Southern leaders had become so arrogant they could not imagine northerners would be willing to die to keep the south from leaving. Arrogance on both sides would prove catastrophic. Once shots fired at Fort Sumter, war was the only option. This rush to action was the greatest failure in the war. As Catton describes in his book, a war began neither side prepared for. The mobilization of men was so large that in terms of percentage no other war in American history required such a large percentage of American men. Old world military tactics combined with new world technology resulted in human carnage never seen. Combined with utter hatred for the other side, this war went beyond conventional military logic into the realm of politics. These realities came crashing down on both sides resulting in failures so tragic they are beyond comprehension. Both sides shared in failures. The Union quickly mobilized an Army the size of which the nation had never seen. They had to do this without some of the greatest militaryShow MoreRelatedThe Syrian Civil War Essay1311 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSyrian civil war started in 2011 was the outcome of the opposition against the President Bashar al-Assad regime. The uprising emerged as a response to the Arab spring movement that lead to regime change in Tunisia and subsequently turned into mass unrest rooted into the discontent with long-term dictatorship and poor economic situation in the country (Manfreda, n.d.). The number of Syrian citizens killed in the civil war reached 140000 since March 2011 (SBS 2014). The European Commission (2014, 2)Read MorePatrick Henry Speech892 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthat there is no other alternative but war. Henry starts off by acknowledging the patriotism and abilities of the men who spoke before, and against him. Henry goes on to persuade his audience by use of rhetorical questions and compari sons to religious beliefs. HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s speech was very motivations, and inspirational, as well as urgent and persuasive. Patrick Henry did a good job, and at the height of his speech, he convinces the House of Burgesses that the war needs to be fought. The first thing HenryRead MoreTrumans Utter Destruction with the Atomic Bomb1079 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTruman had several options presented from his Joint Chiefs of Staff. First option was the invasion of the Mainland of Japan, specifically Kyushu. (36) Second option was to continue bombing JapanÃ¢â¬â¢s infrastructure and food supply. (39) Third option was to wait on the till the Soviets acted upon their agreement and join the war against Japan. (41) Fourth option was to change the policy of unconditional surrender to allow Japan to keep Emperor Hirohito on his throne. (42) The final option Truman receivedRead MorePresident Truman Made A Nuclear Weapon1745 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesbomb was dropped on Japan in the city of Nagasaki. P resident Truman made this choice in an effort to end World War II. World War II began on September 1,1939 and ended on September 2,1945 ending in an Allie victory. This world was fought primarily by the Axis Powers: Germany, Austria, Italy, and Japan and the Allie Powers: Great Britain, France, The USSR, and the United States. President Truman made a difficult decision to drop nuclear weapons on Japan, because the factors leading up to the war, theRead MoreWorld War I Am Become Death, The Destroyer Of Worlds1165 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswhat Robert Oppenheimer said when an atomic bomb was first tested at Los Alamos. On August 6, 1945 an atomic bomb was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. Three days later, another was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. These bombs killed over 100,000 instantly and approximately another 100,000 died from the fallout affect of the bombs. Nobody will ever forget this tragic day, when America destroyed the lives of thousands but also stopped the wa r with Japan. Since this moment, there has alwaysRead MoreStrategic Partnership Agreement ( Spa )1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Zero OptionÃ¢â¬ for Withdrawal of Troops in Afghanistan As plans needed to be made to withdraw American troops from Afghanistan, President Obama proposed a Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) in May 2010 between the United States and Afghanistan. From the White HouseÃ¢â¬â¢s Fact Sheet on the agreement (2012), the goal of this agreement is to define what the USÃ¢â¬â¢s involvement will be with the Afghan Government beyond the end of the war. It was now 2012 and the President of Afghanistan, Karzai, was stillRead MoreThe War Policy Of Bombing Cities Essay1647 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesArguments against the statement: 1) The Japanese were Warned Supports of the atomic bombs point out that Japan had been warned and given time to surrender. On July 26, the Potsdam Declaration was sent to Japan as a final ultimatum to accept unconditional surrender. The Allies would accept nothing but unconditional surrender with the document being concluded with Ã¢â¬Å"We call upon the Government of Japan to proclaim now the unconditional surrender of all the Japanese armed forces Ã¢â¬ ¦ the alternative forRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageswith PTSD will Reduce the Rate of Suicides Soldiers who return home may not only have physical setbacks, but are mentally traumatized from what they have witnessed while serving our country. Veterans are more prone to be diagnosed with PTSD due to the combat they experience or witness on the field. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans has been prevalent for decades and there is still no known treatment option that has been found entirely effective. Many Vietnam veterans who never soughtRead MoreHarry S. Truman For Defeating Japan s Barbaric Regime And Ending The Bloodiest War1641 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhen Harry S. Truman was forced to decide whether or not to drop the atomic bombs on Japan, the moral choice was clear: dropping the bombs was the most viable option available that would end World War II, minimize casualties on both sides of the war, and ensure American victory. Every other option available to Truman would have resulted in a much greater loss for the people of both Japan and the United States. Whil e dropping atomic bombs on the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was undeniably an atrocityRead MoreShould Us Go To War In Iraq Essay820 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagespeople believed that our government was looking for a reason to go to war in the middle east, specifically with Iraq. We believed that the Ã¢â¬Å"people of Iraq are an oppressed people, and the world has a duty to help these peopleÃ¢â¬ (Kelly). However, after going through the Vietnam war, our citizens did not want to enter into another war and send more soldiers away from home. We were currently having our best years financially in our country and were involved in zero wars. But, looking for ways to have better
Abstract Theory development is the fundamental step for expansion of nursing knowledge. The knowledge has been borrowed from different disciplines to build the nursing theories. The categorization of theories is based on their scope of practice. The grand nursing theories are the most complex and abstract in their nature. Middle range theories are inducted mostly from grand nursing theories. OremÃ¢â¬â¢s self-care model is clear and descriptive; the theory has been applied, analyzed in a precise method to various areas in the current nursing practice successfully. A comprehensive knowledge of nursing theories is an integral part of graduate nursing. Initially I was also wondering just like the graduate student in the beginning of chapter 2 in (McEwen amp; Willis, 2011) about the application of theory to nursing practice. However the initial theory classes were lot of information in a short duration. Over the time of the course it became clear that theory development in nursing has been crucial to nursing emerging as a profession. We will write a custom essay sample on Theories as the Basis for Nursing Practice or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The knowledge for nursing theory development has been based on silent knowledge, where the role is limited to following physician orders, received knowledge; this is the information from other fields like sociology, psychology, physiology and anthropology. Later on the theory development was based on individual experiences, practical skills and procedures and empirical data and evidence based practices (McEwen amp; Willis, 2011). Initially it was extremely difficult to comprehend the grand theories, however, as mentioned by Professor Williams (2012) analyzing the grand theories in the context of meta paradigms like human, environment, nursing and health made it quite interesting and simple to understand M. Y. Williams (personal communication, October 12, 2012). The analysis of theories based on the concept development and the logical relationships between the concepts, provides the opportunity to conduct further research in the nursing practice. Grando (2005) described the use of OremÃ¢â¬â¢s theory to guide nursing practice as an example of modern nursing to distinguish nursing from medicine. Grando (2005) successfully implemented a self-care deficit model while treating patients to maintain mental health functioning. She developed a tool based on conditioning of the basic human factors leads to self care requisites like changing behaviors, re framing the habits and managing feelings. Grando (2005) was able to cultivate self care agencies like adequate knowledge, judgment and perception modification to facilitate aintenance of mental health. SCNDT has been successfully implemented in various settings like care of the patient with learning disability. OremÃ¢â¬â¢s model was used in the nursing process to assess the needs of a patient named Sara suffering with Asthma and formulated the nursing diagnosis and care plan based on the needs identified. Ã¢â¬Å"The human needs are categorized into food, air, water, shelter, rest, social interaction, prevention of hazards and maintaining adequate normal function levelÃ¢â¬ (Horan, Doran amp; Timmins, 2004, p. 35 ). The patient was asked to maintain a diary of all the teachings and the interventions to track the progress of the care plan. The conclusion of the study was: It proved as a useful frame work in this situation because Sara was involved in the entire process. From this she became aware of issues relating to her self- care needs and how to meet them. The authors have found that using OremÃ¢â¬â¢s (2001) model in this practice setting has greatly enhanced SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s self-care abilities and acknowledgement of deficits plus, preventing possible future problems.
Monday, April 20, 2020
Oedipus In the play "Oedipus," irony is used frequently as and as eloquently by Sophocles to the reveal theme of seeking knowledge. Not knowing the King of Thebes, Oedipus, gives speeches on finding the murderer of the King of Laias and how wretched the poor soil will be when the truth is revealed. " Then once more I must bring what is dark to light..., whoever killed King Laios might- who knows?-might decide at any moment to kill me as well. By avenging the murder of the King, I protect myself, (Sophocles 1109). The speech shows how dedicated Oedipus in the pursuit of the murderer and not only the avenge of the King but to save himself. He will not be saving but adding down to his life. Oedipus doesn't realize he is in pursuit of himself. He continues his speech "Moreover: If anyone knows the murderer to be foreign, Let him not keep silent: he shall have his reward from him," ( 1112). With his own words he asks for the truth. But he can't handle the truth, for he has no idea what he is asking for or for whom he is searching for. He also states that he wants the people of his country to outcast the murderer once he is discovered. "I solemly forbid the people of this country, Where power and throne are mine, ever to receive that man or speak to him , no matter who he is..., ( Sophocles 1112). He fears the oracle and wants to do it right by it. But in doing so he will seclude himself from his own people as well as his family. He even prays to God asking him to punish the murderer severely with no avail. "I pray that that man's life be consumed in evil and wretchedness... And as for me, this curse applies no less," ( 1112). He is sure that that the curse doesn't apply to him, so he is willing to announce this publicly. He doesn't know that the old man he killed was King Laois. His only concern at this time is to free the city from sickness. He later announces that the King if he had not been killed would have had children and he would act as Laois' son and avenge his father's death. "I say I take the son's part, just as though I were his son, to press the fight for him," ( 1112). Not only is he going to battle for the murdered King, but wants all the people in the city and damnation will be their reward. As he continues his search for knowledge, Oedipus brings the only man known to know the truth about the prophet Teiresias. Oedipus feels the truth will now be revealed and satisfaction will come to him. "How dreadful knowledge of the truth can be when there's no help in truth...," (1114). This speech from Teiresias is not well interpeted by Oedipus. He is raged. Oedipus wants Teiresias to speak up and tell what he knows but as Teiresias continues to speak the Oedipus is confused and angered. Teresias blames Oedipus for the ruin of the city and finally states that Oedipus is the murderer. Oedipus is furious with Teresias and tells him to leave.The truth is already hard to swallow. Then it all starts coming together. Iocaste reminds Oedipus of the story. "Laisaus was killed By marauding strangers where three highways meet; But his child had not been three days in the world Before the King had pierced the baby's ankles...", (1124). This joys Oedipus' memory of the old man he killed and how he has marks on his heels. Fear overcomes Oedipus. He starts asking Iocaste questions about the King. What did he look like? Was the King escorted at the time of his death? He doesn't want to believe what he is hearing. As Oedipus last resort to seek knowledge he asks the only witness to the crime to come and give his story. The shepherd to the King of Laios is reluctant to speak. But Oedipus insists on the truth. As the truth unfolds, Oedipus is left with nothing but misery. Ah God! It was true! All the prophecies! --Now, O Light, may I look on you for the last time! I, Oedipus, Oedipus, damned in his birth, in his marriage damned, Damned in the blood he shed with his own hand! In seeking knowledge he found the truth. Truth that has brought him to his fate given
Sunday, March 15, 2020
Tracing the History and Genealogy of Your Home Have you ever wondered about the history of your house, apartment, church or other building? When was it built? Why was it built? Who owned it? What happened to the people who lived and/or died there? Or, a favorite question as a child, does it have any secret tunnels or cubbyholes? Whether youre looking for documentation for historic status or are just plain inquisitive, tracing a propertys history and learning about the people who have lived there can be a fascinating and fulfilling project. When conducting research on buildings there are usually two types of information that people search for: Architectural facts, such as date of construction, the name of architect or builder, construction materials, and physical changes over time.Historical facts, such as information on the original owner and other residents through time, or interesting events associated with the building or area. A house history may consist of either type of research, or be a combination of both. Get to Know Your Home Begin your search by looking closely at the building for clues about its age. Look at the type of construction, the materials used in construction, the shape of the roofline, the placement of the windows, etc. These types of features may prove useful in identifying the architectural style of the building, which helps in establishing the general construction date. Walk around the property looking for obvious alterations or additions to the building as well as roadways, paths, trees, fences, and other features. It is also important to look at nearby buildings to see whether they contain similar features which will also help to date your property. Talk to relatives, friends, neighbors, even former employees - anyone who might know something about the house. Ask them not only for information about the building, but also about former owners, the land upon which the house was built, what existed at that location prior to construction of the house, and the history of the town or community. Check family letters, scrapbooks, diaries, and photo albums for possible clues. Its even possible (though not likely) that you may find an original deed or even a blueprint for the property. A thorough search of the property may also yield clues between walls, floorboards, and other forgotten areas. Old newspapers were often used as insulation between walls, while journals, clothing, and other items have been found in rooms, closets, or fireplaces that for one reason or another were sealed over. Were not recommending that you knock holes in the walls unless you are planning a restoration, but you should be aware of the many secrets which an older home or building can contain. Chain of Title Search A deed is a legal document used to transfer ownership of land and property. Examining all of the deeds concerning your home or other property is a big step toward learning more about its history. In addition to providing the names of property owners, deedsÃ may provide information on construction dates, changes in value and use, and even plot maps. Begin with the deed for the current owners of the property and work your way back from one deed to the next, with each deed providing details on who conveyed the property to whom. This list of property owners in succession is known as the chain of title. Though often a tedious process, a title searchÃ is the best method for establishing a chain of ownership for a property. Begin your search for deeds by learning where they were recorded and stored for the time and place in which you are interested. Some jurisdictions are even beginning to place this information online - allowing you to search for current property information by address or owner.Ã Next, visit the registry of deeds (or location where deeds are recorded for your area) and use the grantee index to search for the present owner in an index of buyers. The index will provide you with a book and page where a copy of the actual deed is located. A number of county deed offices across the U.S. even provide online access toÃ copies of current, and sometimes historical, deeds. The free genealogy websiteÃ FamilySearch also has many historical deed records online in digital format. Digging Into Address Based Records One piece of information that you will almost always have for your home or building is the address. Therefore, once youve learned a bit about the property and looked for local clues, the next logical step is to search for documents that are based on a buildings address and location. Such documents, including property records, utility records, maps, photographs, architectural plans and more, maybe housed in the local library, historical society, local government offices, or even in private collections. Check with your local genealogy library or genealogical society for help finding the location of the following records in your specific locality. Building Permits:Ã Learn where building permits are kept on file for your buildings neighborhood - these may be held by local building departments, city planning departments, or even county or parish offices. Building permits for older buildings and residences may be preserved at libraries, historical societies or archives. Usually filed by street address, building permits can be especially useful when tracing a house history, often listing the original owner, architect, builder, construction cost, dimensions, materials, and date of construction. Alteration permits provide clues to the buildings physical evolution over time. On rare occasions, a building permit may also lead you to a copy of the original blueprints for your building.Utility Records:Ã If other means fail and the building isnt too old or rural, the date when utilities were first connected may provide a good indication of when a building was first occupied (i.e. a general construction date). The water company is oft en the best place to start as these records generally pre-date electrical, gas and sewer systems. Just remember that your home could have been built before these systems existed and, in such cases, the date of connection will not indicate the construction date. Insurance Records:Ã Historical insurance records, most notably fire insurance claim forms, contain information about the nature of an insured building, its contents, value and, possibly, even floor plans. For an exhaustive search, contact all insurance companies who have been active in your area for a long length of time and ask them to check their records for any policies sold for that address.Ã Fire insurance mapsÃ created by Sanborn and other companies document the size and shape of buildings, locations of doors and windows, and construction materials, as well as street names and property boundaries, for both big cities and small towns. Researching the Owners Once youve explored the historical records of your home, one of the best ways to expand on the history of your home or other building is to trace its owners. A variety of standard sources exist which should help you learn who lived in the house before you, and from there it is just a matter of using a bit of genealogy research to fill in the gaps. You should have already learned the names of some of the previous occupants and, possibly, even the original owners from the chain of title search covered in part one of this article. Most archives and libraries also have pamphlets or articles available which will help you with the specifics of searching for the previous occupants of your home and learning more about their life. Some of the basic sources for tracing the owners of your home include: Phone Books City Directories:Ã Begin your search by letting your fingers do the walking. One of the best sources for information about the people who lived in your house are old phone books and, if you live in an urban area,Ã city directories. They can provide you with a timeline of former occupants, and possibly provide you with extra details such as occupations. As you search, it is important to keep in mind that your home may have had a different street number, and your street may have even had a different name. City and phone directories, in combination withÃ old maps, are usually the best source for these old street names and numbers. You can usually locate old phone books and city directories at local libraries and historical societies.Census Records:Ã Census records, depending upon the location and time period, may tell you who lived in your home or building, where they came from, how many children they had, the value of the property, and more. Census records can be e specially useful in narrowing down birth, death, and even marriage dates which, in turn, can lead to more records about the homeowners. Census records are not currently accessible beyond the early 20th century in most countries (e.g. 1911 in Great Britain, 1921 in Canada, 1940 in the U.S.) due to privacy concerns, but available records can usually be found at libraries and archives, and online for a number of countries including theÃ United States,Ã Canada, andÃ Great Britain. Church and Parish Records:Ã Local church andÃ parish recordsÃ can sometimes be a good source for death dates and other information about former occupants of your home. This is a more likely avenue of research in small towns where there arent a lot of churches, however.Newspapers and Obituaries:Ã If you are able to narrow downÃ a death date, thenÃ obituariesÃ can provide you with a wealth of details about the former occupants of your home.Ã NewspapersÃ can also be good sources for information on births, marriages, andÃ town histories, especially if youre lucky enough to find one which has been indexed or digitized. You may even find an article on your home if the owner was prominent in some way. Check with the local library or historical society to learn which newspaper was in operation at the time the former owners lived in the home, and where the archives are located. The U.S. Newspaper Directory atÃ Chronicling AmericaÃ is an excellent source for information on what U.S. newspapers were being published in a particular area at a particular time, as well as the institutions which hold copies. A growing number ofÃ historical newspapers can also be found online. Birth, Marriage and Death Records:Ã Ã If you are able to narrow down a date of birth, marriage or death, then you should definitely investigate vital records. Birth, marriage, and death records are available from a variety of locations, depending upon the location and time period. Information is readily available on the Internet which can point you to these records and provide you with the years they are available. The history of the homeowners is a big part of the history of a house. If youre lucky enough to track former owners all the way down to living descendants, then you may want to consider contacting them to learn more. People who have lived in the home can tell you things about it that you will never find in public records. They may also be in possession of old photos of the home or building. Approach them with care and courtesy, and they may be your best resource yet!
Friday, February 28, 2020
WA2 - Assignment Example Nelson (2012) calls tsunami as tidal waves while it is rejected as tidal waves by the governmental website for Tsunami. Tsunami is not essentially generated because of displacement of sea floor, but there are many other reasons. Its occurrence can be sudden and damaging for the coastal communities (Nelson). The word Tsunami was unknown to people before December 2004 when an earthquake of 9.1 magnitude hit Indonesia and vertically displaced the sea floor after which, a Tsunami got created and became the reason of killing nearly two hundred and thirty thousand people and affecting several millions. People suffered because of lack of proper warning measures taken by the authorities. Even after getting knowledge of tsunami, people continue getting affected as people saw a Tsunami in 2009, 2010 and 2011. There were tsunamis before, but the tsunami of 2004 made scientists to research it in depth (Nelson). The tsunami waves reach up to a height of 100 meters that build a wall against the land and eruption of this walled water on the coasts can be destructive for the residents of the coasts. These waves as per national geographic are created because of displacement of tectonic plates under the sea (National Geographic). With the rise or fall of boundary walls of the plates, the water over the ocean floor is displaced that moves forward in form of tsunami. Landslides and volcanic eruptions can also be comprehended as the reasons of creation of tsunami. In deep water, they do not have noticeable height, but in shallow water, their speed gets lessened and they get elevated energy and height that is damaging for the shores (National Geographic). Warnings can be sent to areas that are far from earthquakes and other regions as there is plenty of time to take actions. However, for coastal areas, the time for warning is less and people have to
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
SOCIOLINGUISTICS - Essay Example However, quantitative study is the ideal methodology in studying variations in English language as a second language because it clearly outlines effects of language transfer. There have been a number of notable studies in the field of sociolinguistics from the view of English as a second language. However, in this case the main focus is on two studies. The first one was conducted in New York City by William Labov where he investigated the variations in pronouncing variable /r/. Labov argued that New Yorkers, especially the young people, had developed a tendency of pronouncing /r/ variable after vowels in their speech. This case would probably occur while pronouncing words like floor and fourth. Labov conducted his research in three stores in the city which included S. Klein, Saks, and MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s. His approach in testing these hypotheses involved face to face interviews with the store employees. He repetitively asked for directions to departments in the fourth floor and intentional ly made the respondent to repeat Ã¢â¬Å"fourth floorÃ¢â¬ pretending not to have heard it the first time (Wardhaugh, 2006). Moreover, the research involved a number of social factors such as social-classes ranging from high, middle, to low class. Labov found out that a significant number of employees in all the three stores never used variable /r/ in the first respond. The results of those employees who never used variable /r/ reflected 79 percent in S. Klein, 38 percent in Saks and 49 percent in MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s. However, in the second or third response of same words, the percentage of those using variable /r/ increased. The research also showed that variable /r/ was mostly observed while pronouncing Ã¢â¬Å"floorÃ¢â¬ than Ã¢â¬Å"fourthÃ¢â¬ . These in relation to individuals using English as a second language shows that there are higher possibilities of such individuals using /r/ variable in most cases. Labov further examined the results from the three stores and discovered that young employees, in Saks, used the variable /r/ more compared to elderly employees. On the other hand, MacyÃ¢â¬â¢s data showed an increase in the use of /r/ variable with age while S. KleinÃ¢â¬â¢s data did not show much variation. These results led Labov to conclude that, there is relatively minimal or no change of pronunciation developed in adolescence regardless of the social-class of an individual (Wardhaugh, 2006). Later, Labov conducted a more compressive research to test the hypothesis on pronunciation of the /r/ variable in relation to social class. He discovered that most upper middle class people in New York value pronunciation of the /r/ variable in words such as guard and car. This is, however, contrary to the history of / r/ variable pronunciation in New York. Use of variable /r/ in New York between eighteenth century and World War II had reduced significantly. Therefore, the only explanation behind the tremendous increase in using /r/ variable in New York would be the influence of immigrants, mostly English second language speakers, moving into the city (Bayley, 2005). Therefore, using English as a second language contributes to variation in the use of language. In this case, Labov interviewed more New Yorker, although this time, they were just required to give their view about the people whose speech differs only in pronunciation of /r/ variable. People between the age group of 0-20 years approved and used more of